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Oscillations in the climate could have a significant impact on the ranges of species, the patterns of gene flow, and the demographics of populations. Species that are confined to montane environments have experienced expansions and contractions along elevation gradients as a reaction to environmental change. This can lead to difference across sky islands. The Pachyhynobius shangchengensis, also known as the Shangcheng stout salamander, is a species of amphibian that can only be found in high-elevation parts of the Dabie Mountains in East China. In the current study, we investigated the genetic variation and evolutionary history of P. shangchengensis by using mtDNA genes (Cyt b and ND2) from 193 individuals and 12 nuclear microsatellite loci genotyped on 370 individuals. These individuals represented 6 populations (JTX, KHJ, MW, TTZ, BYM, and KJY) that were spread out across the taxon’s distribution area. The majority of populations displayed extraordinary high levels of genetic diversity.
The results of the phylogenetic analysis showed that there are five monophyletic clades that diverged between 3.96 and 1.4 million years ago. As a consequence of this, there was a considerable amount of genetic diversity existing amongst these populations. According to the findings of Bayesian skyline plot analysis, all communities have experienced long-term population growth since the end of the most recent interglacial period (0.13 Mya 0.12 Mya). Analysis using msvar identified recent evidence of population loss for two northern populations (JTX and KHJ), implying a substantial bottleneck that occurred during the middle of the Holocene (about 6000 years ago). Modeling of ecological niches has revealed a discontinuity in the habitats that are suited for P. shangchengensis under the various climate conditions that have occurred throughout history.
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According to the findings of this study, the niche conservatism of P. shangchengensis as well as the effects of sky islands may have contributed to the long-term separation of populations. The mid-latitude Dabie Mountains have provided a stable environment over a long period of time for P. shangchengensis on sky island refuges. This has resulted in the accumulation of genetic diversity and has encouraged genetic divergence. The earth’s geological, climatic, and hydrological histories are the primary forces that have been responsible for shaping the patterns of biodiversity that exist today . These factors have the potential to alter the diversification on a variety of timescales and geographical sizes [2, 3]. For instance, the raising of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau led to the fragmentation of habitat, restrictions on dispersal, and the establishment of gene flow barriers, all of which sped up the process of divergence and even led to the formation of new species .
The current patterns of species distributions and inter-population gene flow may be the result of climatic oscillations that occurred over the past million years . Examples of these oscillations include glacial expansions and retreats. Because of the barrier effect, climatic oscillations and geological changes can have a significant impact on hydrological histories, which in turn can have a significant impact on phylogeographic patterns, particularly for aquatic animals [9, 10]. In addition, during the Quaternary period, severe climatic oscillations had a significant influence on the phytogeography of species that live at mid-latitudes . This was especially true for endemic species that can only be found in mountainous regions. Therefore, the effects of geological, climatic, and hydrological histories were possibly most pronounced in mid-latitude mountains. These are the mountains where species that adapted to the local environmental conditions may have experienced alternating periods of isolation and connection during climate fluctuations .
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The genetic repercussions of these historical events can be seen in the phylogeographic patterns and levels of genetic variation that are shared by different taxonomic groups [6,7,8]. In this study, we collected samples of P. shangchengensis across its range and conducted genetic analyses using a combination of multiple molecular markers and GIS-based environmental niche analyses in order to gain a deeper understanding of the population genetic relationships and evaluate the processes that lead to diversification. In the first step of our investigation, we used statistical phylogenetic methods to determine whether or not each geographically isolated population of sky islands is reciprocally monophyletic and whether or not the patterns of phylogenetic diversification identified are consistent with past climate oscillations. In the second part of our study, we investigated whether or not the genetic diversity of the sky island populations was adequately preserved. In the end, we used ecological niche modelling (ENM), in conjunction with data on paleoclimate, to deduce the historical origins for the scattered distribution pattern of P.
The dynamics of populations and their divergence over time have shaped the current levels of biodiversity, and in the case of the “sky islands” of mountainous southwest (SW) China, they have resulted in an area of exceptional botanical diversity. This can be seen as a consequence of the fact that current levels of biodiversity were formed. The prostrate fig tree known as Ficus tikoua is a sub-endemic species that is unique to the region. It demonstrates remarkable intraspecific variety by producing figs that are characteristic of various pollination modalities in various regions of its range. We investigated the possible causes of this peculiar circumstance by combining climate models, genetic variation in populations of the tree’s obligate fig wasp pollinators, and distributions of the various plant phenotypes. This allowed us to better understand how this peculiar circumstance may have come about. We discovered three genetically different populations of a single species of Ceratosolen pollinator that have substantially parapatric ranges. The region’s varied topography played a role in the development of genetic diversity among the pollinators by promoting geographical isolation and supplying refuges, both of which helped to the process.
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